St. Peter's Square is the heart of the Vatican State that has a complicated architectural history, full of visual effects made by Bernini to ensure a uniform perspective.
In 1656 Bernini began work on the construction of the square designed to give a unique symbolic meaning: the facade of the Basilica, at the center of the square, it is surrounded by two arms of columns to accommodate the faithful in the square and spread the message of a Church to embrace need of every believer.
There are three optical effects linked to the Vatican, the facade of St. Peter's Basilica and its dome which demonstrate the creativity of artists who have been able to build beautiful works using measures that would make the buildings artistically valid.
The Facade of the Vatican
When facing the Basilica di San Pietro, in the center of the square, and moving away from it all the elements: the obelisk, the facade and the colonnade have value becoming all one harmonious.
Bernini's colonnade hides, too, many elements necessary for the artist to create a better perspective. Among the cobblestones of the square he is set a particular tile, placing itself at that point you realize that the four rows of columns seem to converge into one.
In addition, crossing Piazza seems that the columns will approach and move away creating movement, this happens thanks to special geometric calculations and prospective studies.
To see another spectacular optical effect linked to the dome of Saint Peter, you must go to Via Piccolomini, near the Appian. Walking on this road and looking at the dome is possible to note that advancing towards them this seems to recede, and returning back Cuppolone seems to be closer